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Pest Management Guidelines
A Cornell Cooperative Extension Publication

  
New York Pest Management Guidelines

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12 Small Fruit Pest Management

12. Small Fruit Pest Management

Contents

IPM for Raspberry Disease Control

Further Reading

Table 15. Small-fruit pest management

Blueberry

Currant and gooseberry

Grape

Raspberry and blackberry

Strawberry

 

(for Rhubarb, see Chapter 13: Vegetable Pest Management)

 

 

Small fruit pest management guidelines are provided in Table 15. For toxicity information, see Table 3 in Chapter 3 and Tables 4b and 4c in Chapter 4. For nonpesticidal alternatives, see Chapter 11 in Part I: Cultural Methods, of Pest Management Around the Home.

 

IPM for Raspberry Disease Control

The following outline reviews available techniques that raspberry growers can use to minimize or eliminate the need to spray fungicides to control specific diseases.

Cane diseases (anthracnose, cane blight, spur blight)

1.     Prune dead or diseased canes before new primocanes emerge; burn, bury, or remove them from garden.

2.     Promote air circulation to increase drying of young primocanes:

a.     Regulate cane densities.

b.    Regulate row width.

c.     Use trellising systems.

3.     Apply a single, delayed dormant spray of lime sulfur to reduce overwintering inoculum levels.

4.     Minimize cane injuries (for cane blight).

5.     Avoid summer tipping of canes if rain is expected within two to three days (for cane blight).

Gray mold

1.     Promote air circulation to reduce humidity and improve drying within the fruiting zone.

a.     Use same techniques as for cane diseases.

Phytophthora root rot

1.     Plant only on soils with good internal and surface drainage; plant highly susceptible cultivars only on soils that have excellent drainage.

2.     If possible, establish new plantings from nursery material not previously exposed to garden or field soil (i.e., greenhouse-propagated plants).

3.     Avoid contaminating new planting sites with soil, water, or plants from sites in which the disease has occurred.

Leaf spot

1.     Promote air circulation to reduce humidity and improve drying of new leaves.

a.     Use same techniques as for cane diseases.

2.     Apply a single, delayed dormant spray of lime sulfur to reduce overwintering inoculum levels.

Viral diseases

1.     Use only planting stock derived from virus-indexed sources.

2.     If possible, avoid establishing new plantings adjacent to wooded areas or older raspberry plantings.

3.     Eradicate wild brambles in nearby hedgerows.

Verticillium wilt

1.     Avoid planting in locations where susceptible crops (such as potatoes or tomatoes) have been grown recently.

Summary

Four primary themes run throughout the preceding list:

1.     Plant resistant or only moderately susceptible cultivars.

2.     Exclude specific pathogens from the planting if at all possible.

3.     Reduce inoculum levels for indigenous or established pathogens.

4.     Choose or modify the crop environment to make it less conducive to growth and development of plant-pathogenic fungi.

 

Further Reading

Note: Some of the references are applicable for commercial growers, therefore, not all products mentioned are available for use by the home gardener.

The Cornell Guide to Growing Fruit at Home. Eames-Sheavly, M., and M. P. Pritts. 2003. Cornell Cooperative Extension Information Bulletin 156. Ithaca, N.Y. 104 pp. http://www.gardening.cornell.edu/fruit/homefruit.html

Assessing the Risk of Grape Berry Moth Attack in New York Hoffman, C. J., and T. J. Dennehy. 1987. Vineyards. New York’s Food & Life Sciences Bulletin 120. Geneva, N.Y. 4 pp.

Bramble Production Guide Pritts, M. P., and D. Handley. 1991. NRAES-35. Ithaca, N.Y. 188 pp.

Compendium of Blueberry and Cranberry Diseases Curuso, F. L., and D. C. Rumsdell. 1995. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minn. 193 pp.

Compendium of Grape Diseases Pearson, R. A. 1988. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minn. 100 pp.

Compendium of Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases and Insects Ellis, M. A. 1991. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minn. 100 pp.

Compendium of Strawberry Diseases, 2nd edition. Maas, J. L. 1998. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minn. 128 pp.

Control of Grape Diseases and Insects in the Eastern US McGrew, J. R., and G. W. Still. 1979. Farmers’ Bulletin 1893. USDA, Washington, D.C. 35 pp.

Controlling Diseases of Raspberries and Blackberries Converse, R. H. 1978 (Rev. ed.) Farmers’ Bulletin 2208. USDA, Washington, D.C. 18 pp.

Highbush Blueberry Production Guide Pritts, M. P., and J. F. Hancock. 1992. NRAES-55. Ithaca, N.Y. 200 pp.

Small Fruits in the Home Garden Gough, R. E., and E. B. Poling. 1996. Haworth Press, New York. 272 pp.

Strawberry Production Guide Pritts, M. P., and D. Handley. NRAES-88. Ithaca, N.Y. 162 pp.

Cornell Fruit Resources:

            Berries – http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/berry.html

            Grapes – http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/grapes.html

Cornell IPM Guidelines:

            Berries – http://ipmguidelines.org/BerryCrops/

            Grapes – http://ipmguidelines.org/grapes/

 

Table 15. Small-fruit pest management

Also see Chapter 11 in Part I: Cultural Methods, of Pest Management Around the Home.

Plant

Pest

Some Pest Management Options

Blueberry

Blueberry maggot

Use visual (yellow board) traps for monitoring starting in late June, if able to properly identify adults and differentiate from other fly species. Beginning 7 days after first capture of adult flies, if needed, use kaolin clay (suppression only) or pyrethrins. Apply about July 7–12 (10 days earlier on Long Island, New York); repeat twice at 10-day intervals until harvest.

 

Cranberry fruitworm and cherry fruitworm

Spinosad may be used, at petal fall and again 10 days later. Spinosad is toxic to bees, and should not be applied while flowers are producing nectar or pollen.

 

Leafrollers

Use Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki), kaolin clay (suppression only), permethrin, pyrethrins plus PPB, or spinosad. Spinosad is toxic to bees, and should not be applied while flowers are producing nectar or pollen.

 

Scales

Use horticultural oil just before budbreak in the spring.

Currant and gooseberry

Powdery mildew

During cool, damp weather, apply azoxystrobin (but not near apples), copper soap (copper octanoate), or myclobutanil. On sulfur tolerant varieties, lime sulfur or sulfur may be used.

 

Currant aphid

When leaf buds are opening, apply insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), or pyrethrins plus PPB.

 

Gooseberry fruitworm

These caterpillars damage berries rather than leaves. As soon as silk webbing is seen joining fruits and sometimes adjacent leaves or fruits begin changing to the ripe color prematurely, apply insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), pyrethrins, or spinosad.

 

Imported currant worm

Use insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), pyrethrins, or spinosad. Spinosad is toxic to bees, and should not be applied while flowers are producing nectar or pollen.

 

San Jose scale

Use insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), or neem oil (note: toxic to bees).

 

Two-spotted spider mite

Apply kaolin clay (suppression only), insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), or pyrethrins.

Grape

Black rot

Following label directions, apply azoxystrobin (not near apples), copper ammonium carbonate, copper soap (copper octanoate), copper sulfate, myclobutanil, or a multipurpose spray containing captan labeled for black rot.

 

Downy mildew

P71GRAPELEAF

Following label directions, if needed apply azoxystrobin (not near apples), Bacillus subtilis (for suppression of downy mildew), captan, copper ammonium carbonate, copper soap (copper octanoate), or copper sulfate.

For downy mildew on berries, a multipurpose spray containing captan may be used.

Phosphite (potassium salts of phosphorous acid) can be applied as summer sprays to promote grape resistance to this disease.

 

Phomopsis cane and leaf spot

In years with wet springs, on susceptible varieties (Catawba, Concord, Delaware, Niagara, and Rougeon), make the first application when new shoots are 1 inch long, and repeat according to label directions. Use azoxystrobin (not near apples), captan, or copper soap (copper octanoate).

 

Powdery mildew

Apply azoxystrobin (not near apples), Bacillus subtilis, copper ammonium carbonate, copper soap (copper octanoate), or myclobutanil, according to label directions. Some varieties are sensitive to sulfur (such as Chancellor, Concord, Foch, Ives, Rougeon). On non-sensitive varieties, either lime sulfur (or sulfur may be used, according to label directions.

 

Grape berry moth

For small plantings, remove by hand and dispose of infested grapes. Do not discard on ground, as insects may continue to develop.

Kaolin clay or a multipurpose spray with carbaryl labeled for black rot may be used. Apply just after bloom (first generation of moth larvae) and in mid- to late July or early August (second generation of moth larvae). Above average temperatures (especially in the first half of the field season) may result in a third generation of moths in late August to mid-September.

To see if August treatment is needed, sample the vineyard the third week of July. Visually inspect 5 groups of 20 berry clusters. For grapes that are to be eaten (table grapes), August treatment is warranted if at least 1 cluster out of each 20 is infested in July. For grapes that will be made in to juice, jams/jellies, or wine (processing grapes), treat in August if there are at least 6 infestations per 20 clusters in July.

 

Grape cane girdler

Damage is rarely severe enough to warrant treatment.

 

Grape flea beetle

At budbreak, examine buds for feeding damage and, if needed, apply insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), pyrethrins with canola oil, or a multipurpose spray containing carbaryl that’s labeled for flea beetle on grapes. On sulfur-sensitive grape varieties, do not use a product that also contains sulfur.

 

Grape leafhopper

If more than 20 percent of the leaf surfaces show stippling injury, apply kaolin clay, insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), pyrethrins with canola oil, or a multipurpose spray with pyrethrins that’s labeled for leafhopper on grape. On sulfur-sensitive grape varieties, do not use a product that also contains sulfur.

Raspberry and blackberry

Viral diseases

Control aphids, which spread the disease. Horticultural oil or a multipurpose insecticidal soap (containing potassium salts of fatty acids) labeled for viral diseases on raspberry and blackberry are some products that may be used.

 

Japanese beetle

A chemical spray may be needed at late prebloom, just before blossoms open, or when primocanes of fall-bearing varieties are 18 inches long. Apply kaolin clay (suppression only), malathion, permethrin, or a product containing pyrethrins labeled for Japanese beetle control on raspberry or blackberry. When insects first appear, repeat application at 7- to 10-day intervals if needed (check product label).

 

Raspberry cane borer, raspberry crown borer

Prune out infested canes in winter and damaged shoots during the growing season. No pesticides are currently labeled for use on these borers in the home garden.

 

Raspberry fruitworm and sawfly

Apply pyrethrins or spinosad when blossom buds appear and just before blossoms open. Spinosad is toxic to bees, and should not be applied while flowers are producing nectar or pollen.

 

Tarnished plant bug

Use insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids) or pyrethrins plus canola oil just before blossoms open.

 

Sap beetle

Apply malathion as fruit begins to color.

 

Tree cricket

Use carbaryl in late August to mid-September.

 

Two-spotted spider mite

Use Mite-X (botanical extracts), kaolin clay (suppression only), malathion, insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), or pyrethrins.

Strawberry

Fungal leaf spot

On susceptible varieties in wet years, apply Bacillus subtilis, captan, copper ammonium carbonate, copper soap (copper octanoate), or myclobutanil.

 

Gray mold
(Botrytis fruit rot)

In wet seasons, weekly sprays during bloom will reduce disease incidence. Use Bacillus subtilis, captan, or copper soap (copper octanoate).

 

Bud weevil
(blossom clipper)

Remove foliage and mulch over the winter. Change site after three years if problem is severe. Row covers in weed-free gardens will act as barriers. (In weedy gardens row covers could increase damage because insects get a head start.) A multipurpose fruit spray with malathion labeled for bud weevil on strawberry may be used.

Cyclamen mite and Two-spotted spider mite

Cyclamen mite is difficult to control. Rogue infested plants. Mite population suppression may be provided by Mite-X (botanical extracts), horticultural oil, kaolin clay, permethrin, insecticidal soap (potassium salts of fatty acids), or pyrethrins.

Slugs

P73SLUG

Iron phosphate or metaldehyde can be applied to the ground surrounding the plants. Caution: baits may resemble pet food. Be sure to place baits where pets or children cannot get into them. Metaldehyde should only be applied where pets or wildlife have no access.

 

Strawberry root weevils

Insect-parasitic nematodes (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and/or Heterorhabditis marelatus) may be used. Steinernema nematodes are not effective.

 

Tarnished plant bug

 

P72BUG

Check for insects by striking plants over a flat, light-colored dish. Treat when one to two nymphs are found per plant. Permethrin, pyrethrins plus canola oil labeled for plant bug control on strawberry, or a multipurpose fruit spray containing carbaryl and labeled for plant bug control on strawberry may be used. Spray early in spring when growth resumes and weekly if needed until bloom. In severe infestations, sprays of some products may be continued until three days before picking. Check labels; some products should not be used that close to harvest.

Tarnished plant bugs overwinter as adults in weedy gardens. Row covers in weed-free gardens may protect newly opened flowers.

 

 

White grubs

P73GRUBS

Avoid planting strawberries immediately following grass sod.