2014 Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Tree Fruit Production

Due to budgetary constraints, the 2014 Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Tree Fruit Production will not be available online. We are currently exploring options that will allow us to recover the costs of posting this publication online. We hope to have the Guidelines back online in 2015.

The table of contents for this publication is provided below as a reference. A print copy can be purchased through your local Cornell Cooperative Extension office or the Cornell Store at Cornell University (800-624-4080 or online).

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Table of Contents

  • ORGANIZATION OF THIS PUBLICATION
  • 1 INTEGRATED CROP AND PEST MANAGEMENT
    • 1.1 Background
    • 1.2 Practicing IPM
    • 1.3 IPM Components
    • 1.4 IPM Tactics
  • 2 ORGANIC TREE FRUIT PRODUCTION IN NEW YORK STATE
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Fungicide Options in Organic Tree Fruit Production
    • 2.3 Site Management Considerations
    • 2.4 Summary
    • 2.5 References
  • 3 PESTICIDE INFORMATION
    • 3.1 Pesticide Classification and Certification
    • 3.2 Use Pesticides Safely
    • 3.3 Pollentator Protection
    • 3.4 New York State Pesticide Control Legislation
    • 3.5 Verifying Pesticide Registration and Restricted-Use Status
    • 3.6 Check the Label for Site and Pest
    • 3.7 Pesticide Recordkeeping/Reporting
    • 3.8 EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) for Agricultural Pesticides
    • 3.9 Reduced-Risk Pesticides, Minimum-Risk Pesticides, and Biopesticides
    • 3.10 FIFRA 2(ee) Recommendations
  • 4 SPRAYER INFORMATION
    • 4.1 Solutions For Safer Spraying
      • 4.1.1 Reducing Risk of Pesticide Exposure Through Use of Engineering Controls
      • 4.1.2 Areas of Potential Contamination
    • 4.2 Minimizing Pesticide Drift in Orchards Part I
    • 4.2.1 Drift Factors
    • 4.3 Minimizing Pesticide Drift in Orchards Part II
      • 4.3.1 Before Spraying:
      • 4.3.2 During Spraying:
      • 4.3.3 A Case Study
      • 4.3.4 Conclusion
    • 4.4 Preparing the Air Blast Sprayer for Work
      • 4.4.1 Checking the Sprayer
      • 4.4.2 Fitting the Sprayer to the Tractor
      • 4.4.3 Checking the Operation of the Sprayer
      • 4.4.4 Pre-Season Maintenance
      • 4.4.5 Sprayer Calibration
      • 4.4.6 Dilute Spraying
      • 4.4.7 Concentrate Spraying
    • 4.5 Rate of Output (GPM)
    • 4.6 Tree Row Volume
      • 4.6.1 Dilute Applications
      • 4.6.2 Concentrate Applications (Low Volume Application)
    • 4.7 Nozzles on the Net
    • 4.8 Selecting Nozzles from the Nozzle Catalogue – Airblast sprayers
    • 4.9 Calibrating Airblast Sprayers
      • 4.9.1 Air Blast Sprayer Calibration (Use Clean Water)
      • 4.9.2 Calibrating a Kinkelder Sprayer
      • 4.9.3 Calibrating an Agtec Sprayer (Use Clean Water)
    • 4.10 Selecting Nozzles from the Nozzle Catalogue – Boom Sprayers
    • 4.11 Boom Sprayer Calibration (Use Clean Water)
    • 4.12 Going Spraying!
    • 4.13 Equipment for Weed Control in Orchards
      • 4.13.1 Boom Applicators
      • 4.13.2 Conventional Flat Fan Nozzles
      • 4.13.3 Pre-orifice Flat Fan Nozzles
      • 4.13.4 Turbo-Teejet
      • 4.13.5 Air Induction Nozzles
      • 4.16.6 Sensor-Controlled Applicators
      • 4.13.7 Controlled Droplet Applicators (CDA)
      • 4.13.8 Flame Applicators
      • 4.13.9 Where to Look/Buy Equipment and Nozzles
    • 4.14 Decontaminating and Storing Crop Sprayers
      • 4.14.1 Reducing Cleaning Problems
      • 4.14.2 Sprayer Cleansers
      • 4.14.3 Tank Rinse Systems (Low-Volume Tank Rinsing)
      • 4.14.4 Cleaning the Sprayer
      • 4.14.5 Tank Rinse Nozzle Suppliers
      • 4.14.6 Disposal of Pesticide Waste
      • 4.14.7 Mechanical Maintenance
      • 4.14.8 Storage of Sprayers
      • 4.14.9 References
    • 4.15 Distance Learning
  • 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF CROP PROTECTANTS USED ON TREE FRUITS
    • 5.1 Cross Reference of Chemical vs. Trade Names of Pesticides
      • 5.1.1 By Common Name
      • 5.1.2 By Trade Name
    • 5.2 Fungicides
    • 5.3 Bactericides
    • 5.4 Other Materials
    • 5.5 Insecticides
      • 5.5.1 Organophosphates
      • 5.5.2 Carbamates
      • 5.5.3 Pyrethroids
      • 5.5.4 Neonicotinoids
      • 5.5.6 Other Materials
    • 5.6 Acaricides
    • 5.7 Fumigants and Nematicides for Tree Fruits
  • 6 DISEASE MANAGEMENT
    • 6.1 Apple Scab Fungicides
    • 6.2 Notes on Apple Scab Management
      • 6.2.1 Implications of Inoculum Dose
      • 6.2.2 Orchard Sanitation for High-inoculum Orchards.
      • 6.2.3 Options for Low-inoculum Orchards
      • 6.2.4 Determining Scab Infection Periods.
      • 6.2.5 Day vs. Night Release of Ascospores.
      • 6.2.6 Seasonal Ascospore Maturity and Discharge.
    • 6.3 Cedar Apple Rust Management
      • 6.3.1 Determining Cedar Apple Rust Infection Periods.
    • 6.4 Stone Fruit Fungicides
      • 6.4.1 Characteristics of Stone Fruit Fungicides
    • 6.5. Cherry Leaf Spot
    • 6.5.1 Determining Cherry Leaf Spot Infection Periods.
  • 7 INSECT AND MITE MANAGEMENT
    • Table 7.1.1. Activity spectrum of pome fruit insecticides and acaricides.
    • Table 7.1.2. Relative toxicity of pome fruit insecticides and acaricides to beneficials.
    • Table 7.1.3. Activity spectrum of stone fruit insecticides.
    • Table 7.1.4. Degree-day accumulations (from Jan. 1) corresponding to selected fruit phenology and arthropod pest events.
    • Figure 7.1.1. STLM Pink Sampling Form
    • Figure 7.1.2. Obliquebanded Leafroller Sampling Form
    • Figure 7.1.3. STLM Petal Fall Sampling Form
    • Figure 7.1.4. Mite Sampling Chart – Threshold = 2.5 mites/leaf (June 1-30)
    • Figure 7.1.5. Mite Sampling Chart – Threshold = 5.0 mites/leaf (July 1-31)
    • Figure 7.1.6. Mite Sampling Chart – Threshold = 7.5 Mites/leaf (August 1-15)
    • Figure 7.1.7. STLM Summer Sampling Form
    • Figure 7.1.8. Apple Maggot Monitoring Form
    • Figure 7.1.9. Apple Events Calendar for the Lake Plains Area of New York
    • Figure 7.1.10. Pear Events Calendar for the Lake Plains Area of New York
    • Figure 7.1.11. Cherry Events Calendar for the Lake Plains Area of New York
    • Figure 7.1.12. Peach Events Calendar for the Lake Plains Area of New York
    • Figure 7.1.13. Prune and Plum Events Calendar for the Lake Plains Area of New York
  • 8 WEED MANAGEMENT
    • 8.1 Calibration to Ensure Correct Herbicide Rate
    • 8.2 Groundcover Management
    • 8.3 Herbicides and Their Use
    • 8.4 Herbicides for Tree Fruits
    • Table 8.4.1. Minimum time between planting and herbicide use.
    • Table 8.4.2. Effectiveness of herbicides in tree fruit crops.
    • Table 8.4.3. Weed control guidelines for tree fruit.
  • 9 WILDLIFE DAMAGE MANAGEMENT
    • 9.1 Deer and Rabbits
    • 9.2 Meadow and Pine Voles
    • 9.3 Woodchucks
    • 9.4 Beavers
  • 10 NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT OF APPLE ORCHARDS
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Nitrogen
    • 10.3 Soil Analysis
    • 10.4 Preplant Soil Preparation
    • 10.5 Fertilization Program for Young Trees
    • 10.6 Fertilization Program for Established Orchards
    • 10.6.1. Maintenance Program
    • 10.6.2 Corrective Program
    • 10.6.3 Special Considerations in Foliar Application of Nutrients
    • 10.6.4 Characteristics of Commonly Available Fertilizers
  • 11 APPLES
    • 11.1 Insecticides and Fungicides for Apples
      • Table 11.1.1 Pesticide Spray Table – Apples.
    • 11.2 Apple Disease Notes
      • 11.2.1 Apple Rust Diseases
      • 11.2.2 Apple Scab
      • 11.2.3 Black Rot & White Rot
      • 11.2.4 Blister Spot
      • 11.2.5 Blossom End Rot
      • 11.2.6 Cedar Apple Rust
      • 11.2.7 Crown Rot (Collar Rot)
      • 11.2.8 Fire Blight
      • 11.2.9 Powdery Mildew
      • 11.2.10 Sooty Blotch And Fly Speck
    • 11.3 Apple Insect and Mite Notes
      • 11.3.1 American Plum Borer
      • 11.3.2 Apple Aphid, Spirea Aphid
      • 11.3.3 Apple Maggot
      • 11.3.4 Apple Rust Mite
      • 11.3.5 Climbing Cutworms: Darksided, Dingy, Mottled, Spotted, Variegated
      • 11.3.6 Codling Moth
      • 11.3.7 Comstock Mealybug
      • 11.3.8 Dogwood Borer
      • 11.3.9 European Apple Sawfly
      • 11.3.10 European Corn Borer
      • 11.3.11 European Fruit Lecanium
      • 11.3.12 European Red Mite
      • 11.3.13 Green Fruitworms
      • 11.3.14 Japanese Beetle
      • 11.3.15 Lesser Appleworm
      • 11.3.16 Mullein Plant Bug
      • 11.3.17 Obliquebanded Leafroller
      • 11.3.18 Oriental Fruit Moth
      • 11.3.19 Oystershell Scale
      • 11.3.20 Plum Curculio
      • 11.3.21 Redbanded Leafroller
      • 11.3.22 Rosy Apple Aphid
      • 11.3.23 San Jose Scale
      • 11.3.24 Spotted Tentiform Leafminer, Apple Blotch Leafminer
      • 11.3.25 Spotted Wing Drosophila
      • 11.3.26 Stink Bugs (including Brown Marmorated Stink Bug)
      • 11.3.27 Tarnished Plant Bug
      • 11.3.28 Variegated Leafroller, Sparganothis Fruitworm
      • 11.3.29 White Apple Leafhopper, Potato Leafhopper
      • 11.3.30 Woolly Apple Aphid
    • 11.4 Storage Disorders
      • 11.4.1 Storage Rots
      • 11.4.2 Storage Scald
      • 11.4.3 Senescent Breakdown (McIntosh)
    • 11.5 Notes on Scald Control
      • 11.5.1 Materials
      • 11.5.2 Application Equipment
      • 11.5.3 Variety Requirements
    • 11.6 Growth Regulator Use In Apples
      • 11.6.1 Chemical Thinning
      • 11.6.2 Weather Factors That Affect Thinning Response
      • 11.6.3 Tree Factors That Affect Thinning Response
      • 11.6.4 Chemicals Registered for Thinning in New York
      • 11.6.5 Chemicals Not Registered for Thinning that Influence Cropload
      • 11.6.6 Spray Timings
      • 11.6.7 Suggested Strategies for New York Growers
      • 11.6.8 Summary
    • 11.7 Other Growth Regulator Uses In Apples
      • 11.7.1 Growth Regulator Chemicals Registered in New York
  • 12 PEARS
    • 12.1 Insecticides and Fungicides for Pears
      • Table 12.1.1. Pesticide Spray Table – Pears
    • 12.2 Pear Disease Notes
      • 12.2.1 Fabraea Leaf Spot
      • 12.2.2 Fire Blight
      • 12.2.3 Pear Scab
      • 12.2.4 Sooty Blotch
    • 12.3 Pear Insect and Mite Notes
      • 12.3.1 Aphids, Including Spirea Aphid
      • 12.3.2 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – refer to section 12.3.15 Stink Bugs
      • 12.3.3 Codling Moth
      • 12.3.4 Comstock Mealybug
      • 12.3.5 European Red Mite, Twospotted Spider Mite
      • 12.3.6 Green Fruitworms
      • 12.3.7 Obliquebanded Leafroller
      • 12.3.8 Pear Midge
      • 12.3.9 Pear Psylla
      • 12.3.10 Pear Rust Mite
      • 12.3.11 Pearleaf Blister Mite
      • 12.3.12 Plum Curculio
      • 12.3.13 Redbanded Leafroller
      • 12.3.14 Spotted Wing Drosophila
      • 12.3.15 Stink Bugs (including Brown Marmorated Stink Bug)
      • 12.3.16 Tarnished Plant Bug, Pear Plant Bug
      • 12.3.17 San Jose Scale
    • 12.4 Growth Regulation of Pears
      • Table 12.4.1. Growth Regulator Uses in Pears.
  • 13 CHERRIES
    • 13.1 Insecticides and Fungicides for Cherries
      • Table 13.1.1. Pesticide Spray Table – Cherries
    • 13.2 Cherry Disease Notes
      • 13.2.1 Bacterial Canker (Pseudomonas syringae)
      • 13.2.2 Black Knot
      • 13.2.3 Brown Rot (Blossom & Shoot Blight)
      • 13.2.4 Leaf Spot
      • 13.2.5 Phytophthora Root, Crown, and Collar Rots
      • 13.2.6 Powdery Mildew
      • 13.2.7 X-Disease
    • 13.3 Cherry Insect and Mite Notes
      • 13.3.1 American Plum Borer
      • 13.3.2 Black Cherry Aphid
      • 13.3.3 Black Cherry Fruit Fly, Cherry Fruit Fly
      • 13.3.4 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – refer to section 13.3.12 Stink Bugs
      • 13.3.5 European Red Mite
      • 13.3.6 Japanese Beetle
      • 13.3.7 Lesser Peachtree Borer
      • 13.3.8 Obliquebanded Leafroller
      • 13.3.9 Plum Curculio
      • 13.3.10 Scales, including European Lecanium and San Jose Scale
      • 13.3.11 Spotted Wing Drosophila
      • 13.3.12 Stink Bugs (including Brown Marmorated Stink Bug)
    • 13.4 Storage Rot Notes
    • 13.5 Growth Regulation of Cherries
      • Table 13.5.1. Growth Regulator Uses in Cherries
  • 14 PEACHES AND NECTARINES
    • 14.1 Insecticides and Fungicides for Peaches and Nectarines
      • Table 14.1.1. Pesticide Spray Table – Peaches and Nectarines
    • 14.2 Diseases
      • 14.2.1 Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni)
      • 14.2.2 Brown Rot (Blossom Blight)
      • 14.2.3 Peach Leaf Curl
      • 14.2.4 Peach Scab
      • 14.2.5 Perennial (Cytospora, Valsa) Canker
      • 14.2.6 Phytophthora Root, Crown, And Collar Rots
      • 14.2.7 Prunus Stem Pitting Virus
      • 14.2.8 X-Disease
    • 14.3 Insects and Mites
      • 14.3.1 American Plum Borer
      • 14.3.2 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – refer to Section 14.3.12 Stink Bugs
      • 14.3.3 Cottony Peach Scale, European Fruit Lecanium Scale, San Jose Scale
      • 14.3.4 European Red Mite
      • 14.3.5 Green Peach Aphid
      • 14.3.6 Japanese Beetle
      • 14.3.7 Obliquebanded Leafroller
      • 14.3.8 Oriental Fruit Moth
      • 14.3.9 Peachtree Borers (Including Lesser Peachtree Borer)
      • 14.3.10 Plum Curculio
      • 14.3.11 Spotted Wing Drosophila
      • 14.3.12 Stink Bugs (including Brown Marmorated Stink Bug)
      • 14.3.13 Tarnished Plant Bug
      • 14.3.14 Western Flower Thrips
      • 14.3.15 San Jose Scale
    • 14.4 Storage Rots
      • 14.5 Growth Regulation of Peaches and Nectarines
      • Table 14.5.1. Growth Regulator Uses in Peaches and Nectarines.
  • 15 APRICOTS
    • 15.1 Insecticides and Fungicides for Apricots
      • Table 15.1.1. Pesticide Spray Table – Apricots
    • 15.2 Apricot Disease Notes
      • 15.2.1 Bacterial Canker (Pseudomonas syringae)
      • 15.2.2 Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni)
      • 15.2.3 Brown Rot
      • 15.2.4 Peach Scab
      • 15.2.5 Perennial (Cytospora, Valsa) Canker
      • 15.2.6 Phytophthora Root, Crown, and Collar Rots
    • 15.3 Apricot Insect and Mite Notes
      • 15.3.1 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – refer to Section 15.2.9 Stink Bugs
      • 15.3.2 European Red Mite, Twospotted Spider Mite
      • 15.3.3 Japanese Beetle
      • 15.3.4 Oriental Fruit Moth
      • 15.3.5 Peachtree Borers (including Lesser Peachtree Borer)
      • 15.3.6 Plum Curculio
      • 15.3.7 Scales, including European Lecanium and San Jose Scale
      • 15.3.8 Spotted Wing Drosophila
      • 15.3.9 Stink Bugs (including Brown Marmorated Stink Bug)
      • 15.3.10 Tarnished Plant Bug
      • 15.3.11 Western Flower Thrips
    • 15.4 Storage Rot Notes
    • 15.5 Growth Regulation of Apricots
  • 16 PLUMS AND PRUNES
    • 16.1 Insecticides and Fungicides for Plums and Prunes
    • Table 16.1.1. Pesticide Spray Table – Plums and Prunes
    • 16.2 Diseases
      • 16.2.1 Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni)
      • 16.2.2 Black Knot
      • 16.2.3 Brown Rot
      • 16.2.4 Peach Scab
      • 16.2.5 Perennial (cytospora, valsa) Canker
      • 16.2.6 Phytophthora Root and Crown Rots
    • 16.3 Insects and Mites
      • 16.3.1 Apple Maggot
      • 16.3.2 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – refer to Section 16.3.12 Stink Bugs
      • 16.3.3 European Fruit Lecanium Scale
      • 16.3.4 European Red Mite, Twospotted Spider Mite
      • 16.3.5 Japanese Beetle
      • 16.3.6 Lesser Peachtree Borer, Peachtree Borer, American Plum Borer
      • 16.3.7 Oriental Fruit Moth
      • 16.3.8 Plum Curculio
      • 16.3.9 Redbanded Leafroller
      • 16.3.10 Scales, including European Lecanium and San Jose Scale
      • 16.3.11 Spotted Wing Drosophila
      • 16.3.12 Stink Bugs (including Brown Marmorated Stink Bug)
    • 16.4 Storage Rots
      • 16.5 Growth Regulation of Plums and Prunes
  • 17 APPENDICES
    • 17.1 Pesticide Data
    • 17.2 EPA numbers and worker protection standard re-entry and personal protective equipment (PPE) guidelines.
    • 17.3 Spray Mixture Compatibility Notes
      • 17.3.1 Suggested Mixing Sequence
    • 17.4. Tree Fruit Reference Materials.
      • 17.4.1 Tree Fruit IPM Fact Sheets
      • 17.4.2 Other References
      • 17.4.3 Websites
    • 17.5 Cornell Diagnostic and Analytical Services
    • 17.6 County and Regional Extension Tree Fruit Specialists In New York
    • 17.7 Campus-Based Extension Faculty and Staff
    • 17.8 Abbreviations and Symbols Used in This Publication
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