2014 Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Berry Crops

Due to budgetary constraints, the 2014 Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Berry Crops will not be available online. We are currently exploring options that will allow us to recover the costs of posting this publication online. We hope to have the Guidelines back online in 2015.

The table of contents for this publication is provided below as a reference. A print copy can be purchased through your local Cornell Cooperative Extension office or the Cornell Store at Cornell University (800-624-4080 or online).

Questions or comments? Send an email to PMEP_Webmaster@cornell.edu.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Pesticide Information
    • 1.1 Pesticide Classification and Certification
    • 1.2 Use Pesticides Safely
    • 1.2.1 Plan Ahead
    • 1.2.2 Move Pesticides Safely
    • 1.2.3 Personal Protective Equipment
    • 1.2.4 Avoid Drift, Runoff, and Spills
    • 1.2.5 Avoid Equipment Accidents
    • 1.2.6 Pesticide Storage
    • 1.3 Pollinator Protection
    • 1.4 New York State Pesticide Control Legislation
      • 1.4.1 Restricted-Use Pesticides
      • 1.4.2 Additional Use Restrictions
    • 1.5 Verifying Pesticide Registration and Restricted-Use Status
    • 1.6 Check the Label for Site and Pest
    • 1.7 Pesticide Recordkeeping/Reporting
    • 1.7.1 New York State Requirements
    • 1.7.2 Federal Private Applicator Recordkeeping Requirements
    • 1.8 EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) for Agricultural Pesticides
    • 1.9 Reduced-Risk Pesticides, Minimum-Risk Pesticides, and Biopesticides
      • 1.9.1 Reduced-Risk Pesticides
      • 1.9.2 Minimum-Risk Pesticides
      • 1.9.3 Biopesticides
    • 1.10 FIFRA 2(ee) Recommendations
  • 2 General Information
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Site Selection and Preparation
    • 2.3 Fumigation
    • 2.4 Cover Crops
    • 2.5 Nutrient Guidelines
    • 2.6 Principles of Weed Management
    • 2.7 Principles of Insect and Disease Management
    • 2.8 Wildlife Damage Management
    • 2.9 Berry Crop Harvesting and Handling Guidelines
    • 2.10 Postharvest Considerations
    • 2.11 Transporting Berries to Market
    • 2.12 Useful Web Sites
    • 2.13 Extension Specialists
    • 2.14 Extension Faculty and Statewide Specialists
    • 2.15 Related Resources
    • 2.16 Herbicide Active Ingredients and Weeds Controlled
  • 3. Sprayer Technology
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Selecting a Small Sprayer for the Small Berry Crop Planting
    • 3.3 Spraying Small-Scale Berry Crop Plantings
    • 3.4 Equipment for Weed Control in Berry Crops
    • 3.5 Selecting the Correct Nozzle to Reduce Drift
    • 3.6 Selecting Nozzles from the Nozzle Catalogue –Boom Sprayers
    • 3.7 Boom Sprayer Calibration
    • 3.8 Preparing the Airblast Sprayer for Work
    • 3.9 Selecting Nozzles from the Nozzle Catalogue – Airblast Sprayers
    • 3.10 Reducing Drift from Airblast Sprayers in Berry Crops
    • 3.11 Sprayer Calibration
    • 3.11.2 Calibrating an AgTec Sprayer
    • 3.12 Management Strategies to Reduce Drift
    • 3.13 Solutions for Safer Spraying
    • 3.14 Decontaminating and Storing Crop Sprayers
    • 3.15 Distance Learning
    • 3.16 Further Sprayer Information
  • 4 Emerging Pests
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Spotted Wing Drosophila
    • 4.3 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
    • 4.4 Blueberry Scorch Virus
    • 4.5 Blueberry Shock Ilarvirus
    • 4.6 Currant Cane Blight
    • 4.7 White Pine Blister Rust
    • 4.8 Wild Parsnip
    • 4.9 Giant Hogweed
    • 4.10 Herbicide-Resistant Weeds in NY
  • 5 Highbush Blueberries
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Insects and Diseases: Time for Concern
      • 5.2.1 DORMANT
        • 5.2.1.1 Insect Stem Gall (Hemadas nubilipennis)
        • 5.2.1.2 Botrytis Blossom and Twig Blight (Botrytis cinerea)
        • 5.2.1.3 Fusicoccum Canker (Fusicoccum putrefaciens)
        • 5.2.1.4 Phomopsis Canker (Phomopsis vaccinii)
        • 5.2.1.5 Scale Insects (various species)
      • 5.2.2 GREEN TIP
        • 5.2.2.1 Mummyberry (Monilinia vacinii-corymbosi)
        • 5.2.2.2 Botrytis Blossom and Twig Blight (Botrytis cinerea)
        • 5.2.2.3 Phomopsis Canker (Phomopsis vaccinii)
      • 5.2.3 PINK BUD
        • 5.2.3.1 Mummyberry (Monilinia vacinii-corymbosi)
        • 5.2.3.2 Botrytis Blossom and Twig Blight (Botrytis cinerea)
      • 5.2.4 BLOOM
        • 5.2.4.1 Mummyberry (Monilinia vacinii-corymbosi)
        • 5.2.4.2 Botrytis Blossom and Twig Blight (Botrytis cinerea)
        • 5.2.4.3 Anthracnose Fruit Rot and Blossom Blight (Colletotrichum acutatum)
        • 5.2.4.4 Blueberry Leaf Rust (Naohidemyces vaccinii or Pucciniastrum vaccinii)
        • 5.2.4.5 Powdery Mildew (Microsphaera vaccinii)
      • 5.2.5 PETAL FALL
        • 5.2.5.1 Cranberry Fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii)
        • 5.2.5.2 Cherry Fruitworm (Grapholita packardi)
        • 5.2.5.3 Leafrollers (various species)
        • 5.2.5.4 Blueberry Tip Borer (Hendecaneura shawiana)
        • 5.2.5.5 Plum Curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar)
      • 5.2.6 POST BLOOM
        • 5.2.6.1 Cranberry Fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii)
        • 5.2.6.2 Cherry Fruitworm (Grapholita packardi)
        • 5.2.6.3 Leafrollers (various species)
        • 5.2.6.4 Blueberry Tip Borer (Hendecaneura shawiana)
      • 5.2.7 SUMMER PREHARVEST
        • 5.2.7.1 Blueberry Maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)
        • 5.2.7.2 Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)
        • 5.2.7.3 Anthracnose Fruit Rot (Colletotrichum acutatum)
        • 5.2.7.4 Blueberry Stem Borer (Oberea myops)
        • 5.2.7.5 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
      • 5.2.8 HARVEST
        • 5.2.8.1 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
      • 5.2.9 SPECIAL PESTS
        • 5.2.9.1 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halymorpha halys)
        • 5.2.9.2 Ants (various species)
        • 5.2.9.3 Witches’ Broom (Pucciniastrum goeppertianum)
        • 5.2.9.4 Crown Gall (Agroibacterium tumefaciens)
        • 5.2.9.5 Blueberry Viruses (various types)
    • 5.3 Blueberry Weed Management
  • 6 Brambles (Raspberries and Blackberries)
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Summer Fruiting Raspberries and Blackberries – Insects and Diseases - Time for Concern
      • 6.2.1 BUD BREAK (New buds show ¼ to ½” green at tips)
        • 6.2.1.1 Anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta)
        • 6.2.1.2 Spur Blight (Didymella applanata)
        • 6.2.1.3 Cane Blight or Spot (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium)
      • 6.2.2 EARLY PREBLOOM
        • 6.2.2.1 Anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta), Spur Blight (Didymella applanata) and Cane Blight (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium)
        • 6.2.2.2 Raspberry Fruitworm (Byturus rubi), Raspberry Sawfly (Monophadnoides geniculatus)
      • 6.2.3 LATE PREBLOOM
        • 6.2.3.1 Raspberry Fruitworm, Raspberry Sawfly
        • 6.2.3.2 Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)
        • 6.2.3.3 Japanese Beetle (Papillia japonica)
      • 6.2.4 EARLY BLOOM (5-10% of blossoms open)
        • 6.2.4.1 Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis)
        • 6.2.4.2 Botrytis Fruit Rot/Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea)
      • 6.2.5 FULL BLOOM
        • 6.2.5.1 Botrytis Fruit Rot/Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea)
        • 6.2.5.2 Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis)
      • 6.2.6 PETAL FALL TO FRUIT RIPENING
        • 6.2.6.1 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
        • 6.2.6.2 Strawberry Sap Beetle (Stelidota geminata) Picnic Beetle (Glischrochilus fasciatus)
        • 6.2.6.3 Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)
    • 6.3 Primocane-Fruiting Raspberries (Fall Bearing) – Insects and Diseases - Time for Concern
      • 6.3.1 WHEN CANES ARE APPROX. 18” TALL
        • 6.3.1.1 Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)
      • 6.3.2 FROM PETAL FALL THROUGH THE BEGINNING OF HARVEST
        • 6.3.2.1 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
        • 6.3.2.2 Sap Beetle (Stelidota geminata)
        • 6.3.2.3 Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)
        • 6.3.2.4 Botrytis Fruit Rot/Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea)
      • 6.3.3 HARVEST
        • 6.3.3.1 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
      • 6.3.4 SPECIAL PESTS
        • 6.3.4.1 Mosaic Virus Complex
        • 6.3.4.2 Crumbly Berry (Tomato Ringspot Virus)
        • 6.3.4.3 Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum)
        • 6.3.4.4 Orange Rust (Arthuriomyces peckianus)
        • 6.3.4.5 Raspberry Leaf and Cane Spot (Septoria rubi)
        • 6.3.4.6 Phytophthora Root Rot (Phytophthora spp.)
        • 6.3.4.7 Late Leaf Rust (Pucciniastrum americanum)
        • 6.3.4.8 Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora)
        • 6.3.4.9 Blackberry Psyllid (Trioza tripunctata)
        • 6.3.4.10 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halymorpha halys)
        • 6.3.4.11 Borers/Cane Girdlers (Various species)
        • 6.3.4.12 Raspberry Crown Borer (Pennisetia marginata)
        • 6.3.4.13 Potato Leafhopper (Empoasca fabae)
        • 6.3.4.14 Tree Cricket (Oecanthus sp.)
        • 6.3.4.15 Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae)
        • 6.3.4.16 Raspberry Aphid (Various species)
        • 6.3.4.17 Yellow Jackets and Hornets* (Vespa spp.)
    • 6.4 Bramble Weed Management
  • 7 Strawberries
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Insects and Diseases: Time for Concern – First Growing Season
      • 7.2.1 SUMMER MONTHS AFTER PLANTING
        • 7.2.1.1 Greenhouse Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum)
        • 7.2.1.2 Twospotted Spider Mite
    • 7.3 Fruiting Years
      • 7.3.1 EARLY SPRING
        • 7.3.1.1 Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae)
        • 7.3.1.2 Bud Weevil or Clipper (Anthonomus signatus)
        • 7.3.1.3 Leaf Spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae)
        • 7.3.1.4 Leaf Scorch (Diplocarpon earliana)
        • 7.3.1.5 Leaf Blight (Phomopsis obscurans)
        • 7.3.1.6 Angular Leaf Spot (Xanthomonas fragariae)
      • 7.3.2 PREBLOOM
        • 7.3.2.1 Bud Weevil or Clipper (Anthonomus signatus)
        • 7.3.2.2 Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)
        • 7.3.2.3 Spittlebug (Philaenus spumaris)
        • 7.3.2.4 Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera aphanis syn. Sphaerotheca macularis )
      • 7.3.3 EARLY BLOOM (10-20% of flower buds open)
        • 7.3.3.1 Botrytis Fruit Rot or Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea)
        • 7.3.3.2 Leaf Spot, Leaf Scorch, Leaf Blight
        • 7.3.4 FULL BLOOM (Do not apply insecticides during bloom)
        • 7.3.4.1 Botrytis Fruit Rot/Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea)
      • 7.3.5 FRUIT SET THROUGH HARVEST
        • 7.3.5.1 Anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum)
        • 7.3.5.2 Leather Rot (Phytophthora cactorum)
        • 7.3.5.3 Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)
        • 7.3.5.4 Strawberry Sap Beetle (Stelidota geminata) Picnic Beetle (Glischrochilus fasciatus)
      • 7.3.6 POST HARVEST
        • 7.3.6.1 Leaf Spot, Leaf Scorch, Leaf Blight
        • 7.3.6.2 Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae)
      • 7.3.7 SPECIAL PESTS
        • 7.3.7.1 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
        • 7.3.7.2 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halymorpha halys)
        • 7.3.7.3 Strawberry Rootworm
        • 7.3.7.4 Root Weevils (Various species)
        • 7.3.7.5 Cyclamen Mite (Stenotarsonemus pallidus)
        • 7.3.7.6 Garden Slugs (Various species)
        • 7.3.7.7 Leafrollers (Various species)
        • 7.3.7.8 Aphids (Various species)
        • 7.3.7.9 Yellow Jackets and Hornets* (Vespa spp.)
        • 7.3.7.10 Potato Leafhopper (Empoasca fabae)
        • 7.3.7.11 Japanese Beetles (Popillia japonica)
        • 7.3.7.12 White grub complex (Various species)
        • 7.3.7.13 Red Stele or Phytophthora Root Rot (Phytophthora fragariae)
        • 7.3.7.14 Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum)
        • 7.3.7.16 Black Root Rot (Various species)
        • 7.3.7.17 Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV)
        • 7.3.7.18 Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV)
    • 7.4 Strawberry Weed Management
  • 8 Ribes (Currants and Gooseberries)
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Insects and Diseases - Time for Concern
      • 8.2.1 DORMANT
        • 8.2.1.1 San Jose Scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus)
      • 8.2.2 BURST TO LEAF
        • 8.2.2.1 Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae)
        • 8.2.2.2 Currant Aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis)
        • 8.2.2.3 Currant Stem Girdler (Janus integer)
      • 8.2.3 EARLY GRAPE TO BLOOM
        • 8.2.3.1 White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola)
        • 8.2.3.2 Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae)
        • 8.2.3.3 Currant Aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis)
      • 8.2.4 BLOOM TO PETAL FALL
        • 8.2.4.1 White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola)
        • 8.2.4.2 Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae)
        • 8.2.4.3 Leaf Spots: Anthracnose Leaf Spot (Drepanopezizia ribis), Septoria Leaf Spot (Mycosphaerella ribis)
        • 8.2.4.4 Currant Aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis)
        • 8.2.4.5 Gooseberry Fruitworm (Zophodia convolutella)
        • 8.2.4.6 Imported Currant Worm (Nebarus ribesii)
      • 8.2.5 SUMMER PREHARVEST
        • 8.2.5.1 White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartium ribicola)
        • 8.2.5.2 Powdery Mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae)
        • 8.2.5.3 Leaf Spots: Anthracnose Leaf Spot, Septoria Leaf Spot
        • 8.2.5.4 Gooseberry Fruitworm (Zophodia convolutella)
        • 8.2.5.5 Currant Borer (Synanthedon tipuliformis)
        • 8.2.5.6 Currant Cane Blight or Botryosphaeria canker (Botryosphaeria ribis)
        • 8.2.5.7 Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae)
        • 8.2.5.8 Imported Currant Worm (Nebarus ribesii)
        • 8.2.5.9 Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)
      • 8.2.6 SPECIAL PESTS
        • 8.2.6.1 Slugs and Snails (Various species)
        • 8.2.6.2 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
    • 8.3 Ribes Weed Management
  • 9 Cranberries
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Diseases - Time for Concern
      • 9.2.1 DORMANT
        • 9.2.1.1 Red Leaf Spot and Red Shoot Disease (Exobasidium rostrupii)
      • 9.2.2 BUD BREAK
        • 9.2.2.1 Cottonball (Monilinia oxycocci)
      • 9.2.3 BLOOM
        • 9.2.3.1 Upright Dieback and Viscid Rot (Phomopsis vaccinii)
        • 9.2.3.2 Early Fruit Rot (Phyllosticta vaccinii)
      • 9.2.4 HARVEST TO POST HARVEST
        • 9.2.4.1 End Rot (Fusicoccum putrefaciens)
  • 10 Elderberries
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Diseases - Time for Concern
      • 10.2.1 BLOOM
        • 10.2.1.1 Powdery Mildew (Various species)
        • 10.2.2 Fruit Ripening through Harvest
      • 10.2.2.1 Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
      • 10.2.3 SPECIAL PESTS
        • 10.2.3.1 Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum)
        • 10.2.3.2 Elder Shoot Borer Moth (Achatodes zeae)
        • 10.2.3.3 Other Insect Damage
  • 11 Juneberries/Saskatoons
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Diseases of Juneberries and Management Options
      • 11.2.1. Entomosporium Leaf and Berry Spot (Entomosporium mespili)
      • 11.2.2. Saskatoon – Juniper Rust (Gymnosporangium nidusavis)
      • 11.2.3. Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni)
      • 11.2.4. Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora)
    • 11.3 Insect Pests of Juneberries and Management Options
      • 11.3.1. Saskatoon Sawfly (Holocampa montanicola)
      • 11.3.2. Wooly Elm Aphid (Eriosoma Americana)
      • 11.3.3. Slugs and snails
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