2014 Cornell Guide for Commercial Turfgrass Management

Due to budgetary constraints, the 2014 Cornell Guide for Commercial Turfgrass Management will not be available online. We are currently exploring options that will allow us to recover the costs of posting this publication online. We hope to have the Guidelines back online in 2015.

The table of contents for this publication is provided below as a reference. A print copy can be purchased through your local Cornell Cooperative Extension office or the Cornell Store at Cornell University (800-624-4080 or online).

Questions or comments? Send an email to PMEP_Webmaster@cornell.edu.

Table of Contents

  • 1 PESTICIDE INFORMATION
    • 1.1 Pesticide Classification and Certification
    • 1.2 Use Pesticides Safely
    • 1.3 Pollinator Protection
    • 1.4 New York State Pesticide Control Legislation
    • 1.5 Verifying Pesticide Registration and Restricted-Use Status
    • 1.6 Check the Label for Site and Pest
    • 1.7 Pesticide Recordkeeping/Reporting
    • 1.8 EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS) for Agricultural Pesticides
    • 1.9 Reduced-Risk Pesticides, Minimum-Risk Pesticides, and Biopesticides
    • 1.10 FIFRA 2(ee) Recommendations
    • 1.11 The Neighbor Notification Law
    • 1.12 Pesticide Use on School and Day Care Center Grounds
    • 1.13 Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)
  • 2 SPRAYER TECHNOLOGY
    • 2.1 Calibration of Application Equipment
    • 2.2 Decontaminating Turfgrass Sprayers
    • 2.3 Minimizing Pesticide Drift
    • 2.4 Sprayer Preparation
    • 2.5 Distance Learning
  • 3 TURFGRASS CULTURE
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Selecting Turfgrasses
      • 3.2.1 High Maintenance Species – Golf, Sports and Lawn Turf
      • 3.2.2 High Maintenance Species – Golf Turf
      • 3.2.3 Medium Maintenance Species-Golf, Sports and Lawn
      • 3.2.4 Medium Maintenance Species – Golf, Sports and Lawn
      • 3.2.5 Low Maintenance Species – Golf and Lawn
    • 3.3 Cultural Practices
      • 3.3.1 Mowing
      • 3.3.2 Fertilizing
      • 3.3.3 Irrigation
      • 3.3.4 Problem Solving
      • 3.3.5 Weeds
      • 3.3.6 Diseases
      • 3.3.7 Insects
      • 3.3.8 Summary
    • 3.4 Integrated Pest Management
      • 3.4.1 Plan
      • 3.4.2 Monitor
      • 3.4.3 Manage
      • 3.4.4 Analyze
      • 3.4.5 Intervene
      • 3.4.6 Keep Records
      • 3.4.7 Communicate
  • 4 PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • 4.1 Overview
    • 4.2 Mowing Management
    • 4.3 Annual Bluegrass Seedhead Suppression
    • 4.4 Enhancing Annual Bluegrass
    • 4.5 Selective Annual Bluegrass Suppression
    • 4.6 Golf Course Putting Surface Management
    • Table 4.1.1 Plant growth regulators used on turfgrass
  • 5 DISEASE MANAGEMENT
    • 5.1 Diagnosis of Turfgrass Diseases
      • 5.1.1 Importance of Correct Disease Diagnosis
      • 5.1.2 Basic Analytical Processes in Disease Diagnosis
    • 5.2 Maximizing the Use of Fungicides for Disease Control
      • 5.2.1 Fungicide Use and General Properties
      • 5.2.2 Fungicide Labels
      • 5.2.3 Fungicide Formulations
      • 5.2.4 Types of Turfgrass Fungicides
      • 5.2.5 How Fungicides Work
    • 5.3 Achieving Maximum Levels of Disease Control from Fungicide Applications
      • 5.3.1 Behavior of Fungicides in Soil
      • 5.3.2 Fungicide Efficacy Affected by Soil Properties
      • 5.3.3 Sorption of Fungicides to Thatch and Soil
      • 5.3.4 Soil Properties Important in Fungicide Adsorption
      • 5.3.5 Fungicide Properties Affect Adsorption
      • 5.3.6 Microbial Degradation of Fungicides
      • 5.3.7 Soil Properties Affect Microbial Degradation
      • 5.3.8 Volatilization of Fungicides
      • 5.3.9 Fungicide Leaching
      • 5.3.10 Management Recommendations
    • 5.4 Plant and Pathogen Factors Affecting Fungicide Efficacy
      • 5.4.1 Turfgrass Growth and Vigor Affect Fungicide Absorption and Translocation
      • 5.4.2 Turfgrass Stresses Important to Fungicide Performance
      • 5.4.3 Pathogen Factors Affecting Fungicide Efficacy
      • 5.4.4 Pathogen Sensitivities to Fungicides Vary
      • 5.4.5 Fungicide Resistance
      • 5.4.6 Minimizing Fungicide Resistance
      • 5.4.7 Management Recommendations
    • 5.5 Handling and Applying Fungicides
      • 5.5.1 Measuring, Weighing, and Mixing Fungicides
      • 5.5.2 Fungicide Compatibilities
      • 5.5.3 Tank Storage Time and pH Affect Fungicide Efficacy
      • 5.5.4 Timing of Fungicide Applications
      • 5.5.5 Fungicide Placement
      • 5.5.6 Fungicide Synergism
      • 5.5.7 Post-Application Irrigation and Fungicide Efficacy
      • 5.5.8 Monitoring the Results of Fungicide Applications
      • 5.5.9 Cost of Control
    • 5.6 Record Keeping
      • 5.6.1 Reasons for Recordkeeping
      • 5.6.2 What Should Be Recorded?
      • 5.6.3 Legal Aspects of Recordkeeping
      • 5.6.4 Sample Forms
      • Fungicide Application Record Diagnostic Record Cultural Record
    • 5.7 Product Updates
      • 5.7.1 Civitas
      • 5.7.2 Reduced Risk Combinations
    • 5.8 Disease Management
  • 6 INSECT MANAGEMENT
    • 6.1 General Guidelines
    • 6.2 Insect Pests in NY State
      • 6.2.1 White Grubs
      • 6.2.2 Weevils
      • 6.2.3 Caterpillars
      • 6.2.4 Chinch Bugs
      • 6.2.5 Ants
      • 6.2.6 Exotic Crane Flies
    • 6.3 Turfgrass Insecticides
      • 6.3.1 Insecticide Resistance and IRAC Codes
      • Table 6.3.1. Registered control products for turfgrass insects in NY State
  • 7 WEED MANAGEMENT
    • 7.1 The Basics of Weeds
      • 7.1.1 Herbicide Resistance and WSSA Classifications
      • 7.1.2 Integrated Weed Management
    • 7.2 Starting Out Right
      • 7.2.1 Herbicide Use at Seeding
    • 7.3 Annual Grass Control
      • 7.3.1 Crabgrass Management
      • 7.3.2 Crabgrass Ecology
      • 7.3.3 Physical Disturbance, Soil Temperature, and Crabgrass Invasion
      • 7.3.4 Do Fertilizer or Organic-Based Approaches Work?
      • 7.3.5 Herbicide Restrictions on NYS School Grounds and Day Care Centers
      • 7.3.6 Preemergence Herbicides and Crabgrass Control
      • 7.3.7 Postemergence Crabgrass Control
      • 7.3.8 An Integrated Approach to Crabgrass Control
      • 7.3.9 Perennial Grassy Weed Control
    • 7.4 Cultural Control of Broadleaf Weeds
      • 7.5 Chemical Control of Broadleaf Weeds
      • 7.5.1 Herbicide Mixtures
      • 7.5.2 Using Broadleaf Herbicides
    • 7.6 Moss Control
      • 7.6.1 Moss Control in Putting Greens
      • 7.6.2 Lawn Moss Control
    • 7.7 Alternative Weed Management
      • 7.7.1 NYS Regulatory Policies
      • 7.7.2 Demand for Alternative Weed Control
      • 7.7.3 Emerging Techniques in Weed Control
      • 7.7.4 EPA Exempt (25(b) FIFRA) Herbicides Allowable for Use on School Grounds and Daycare Centers
  • 8 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT FOR TURFGRASS
    • 8.1 Moles
    • 8.2 Striped Skunks
    • 8.3 Canada Geese
  • 9 INDEX OF COMMON AND TRADE NAMES OF PESTICIDES REGISTERED FOR USE ON TURFGRASS
    • Table 9.1. Plant growth regulators
    • Table 9.2. Fungicides and nematicides
    • Table 9.3. Bio-fungicides
    • Table 9.4. Insecticides
    • Table 9.5. Herbicides
  • 10 GLOSSARY
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